Impact of Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Disease: a Review of Immune Mechanisms

Abstract Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) provides replacement therapy in immunodeficiency and immunomodulatory therapy in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the immune mechanisms underlying six major non-primary immunodeficiency pediatric diseases and the diverse immunomodulatory functions of IVIG therapy. In Kawasaki disease, IVIG plays a major, proven, and effective role in decreasing aneurysm formation, which represents an aberrant inflammatory response to an infectious trigger in a genetically predisposed individual. In immune thrombocytopenia, IVIG targets the underlying increased platelet destruction and decreased platelet production. Although theoretically promising, IVIG shows no clear clinical benefit in the prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal sepsis. Limitations in research design combined with the unique neonatal immunologic environment offer explanations for this finding. Inflammation from aberrant immune activation underlies the myelinotoxic effects of Guillain-Barré syndrome. HIV-1 exerts a broad range of immunologic effects and was found to decrease serious bacterial infections in the pre-highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era, although its practical relevance in the post-HAART era has waned. Clinical and experimental data support the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of childhood epilepsy. IVIG exerts anti-epileptic effects through targeting upregulated cytokine pathways and antibodies thought ...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: University of Rochester Medical Center Press Releases - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first review dedicated to the characteristics of paediatric patients with PRS and epilepsy. Seizures are usually focal, became refractory in 40%, and have a significant impact on the quality of life and neurodevelopment of patients.
Source: Seizure - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The objective of the study was to validate the parent-proxy reported Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE) in a sample of young adults with a history of childhood-onset epilepsy, allowing for the utilization of a consistent informant (the parent) across the youths' stages of development. The 55-item (QOLCE-55) and 16-item versions (QOLCE-16) were evaluated.MethodsData came from 134 young adults (aged 18.0 to 28.5 years) with childhood-onset epilepsy, recruited through community and tertiary care centers across Canada. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the higher-order factor stru...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe impression of and beliefs about epilepsy among the general population as well as among PWE were the primary factors affecting stigma. Thus, there is a need for the provision of accurate information about epilepsy to both these groups. Additional studies on epilepsy-associated stigma employing various methodological approaches are required.
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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