UCLA and City of Hope scientists use nanoparticles to shut down mechanism that drives cancer growth

When scientists develop cancer therapies, they target the features that make the disease deadly: tumor growth, metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance. In epithelial cancers — cancers of the breast, ovaries, prostate, skin and bladder, which begin in the organs’ lining — these processes are controlled by a genetic program called epithelial–mesenchymal transition. UCLA Jeffrey Zink Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is regulated by a protein called Twist, which means that Twist directly influences the development of cancer, its spread to other organs and its return after remission. In a major step toward developing a novel therapy that targets epithelial–mesenchymal transition, scientists from UCLA and City of Hope have become the first to inhibit the mechanism of Twist using nanoparticles to deliver a nucleic acid called small interfering RNA, or siRNA, into tumor cells. In mouse models, delivering siRNA into cancer cells inhibited the expression of Twist, which in turn reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and dramatically reduced the size of tumors. The study, which was published online in the journal Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, was led by Jeffrey Zink and Fuyu Tamanoi, both members of the California NanoSystems Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, and Carlotta Glackin of City of Hope Cancer Center. “We were truly surprised by the dramatic effect of delivering Twist siRNA,&r...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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AbstractAutophagy is crucial for the removal of dysfunctional organelles and protein aggregates and for maintaining stem cell homeostasis, which includes self-renewal, cell differentiation and somatic reprogramming. Loss of self-renewal capacity and pluripotency is a major obstacle to stem cell-based therapies. It has been reported that autophagy regulates stem cells under biological stimuli, starvation, hypoxia, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular senescence. On the one hand, autophagy is shown to play roles in self-renewal by co-function with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to promote pluripote...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
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Source: The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Am Acad Orthop Surg Source Type: research
[The Herald] The thought of having to roll one's crown jewels between their fingers for a while in testicular cancer self-testing would make someone go, well, nuts . . . excuse the pun.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
This study examined the long-term effects of opioid use on HRQoL and its subdomains in patients with back pain or arthritis by comparing opioid users to non-opioid users for three metrics: (1) any opioid use, (2) duration of opioid use, and (3) average daily morphine equivalent dose.MethodsA nationally representative sample of cancer-free adults with chronic back pain or arthritis was selected. Using the 12-Item Short Form Survey, HRQoL measures of Mental Component Score (MCS), Physical Component Score (PCS), and individual subdomains were assessed at baseline and 1  year later. Opioid users were matched to non-opioid...
Source: Quality of Life Research - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
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