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UCLA and City of Hope scientists use nanoparticles to shut down mechanism that drives cancer growth

When scientists develop cancer therapies, they target the features that make the disease deadly: tumor growth, metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance. In epithelial cancers — cancers of the breast, ovaries, prostate, skin and bladder, which begin in the organs’ lining — these processes are controlled by a genetic program called epithelial–mesenchymal transition. UCLA Jeffrey Zink Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is regulated by a protein called Twist, which means that Twist directly influences the development of cancer, its spread to other organs and its return after remission. In a major step toward developing a novel therapy that targets epithelial–mesenchymal transition, scientists from UCLA and City of Hope have become the first to inhibit the mechanism of Twist using nanoparticles to deliver a nucleic acid called small interfering RNA, or siRNA, into tumor cells. In mouse models, delivering siRNA into cancer cells inhibited the expression of Twist, which in turn reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and dramatically reduced the size of tumors. The study, which was published online in the journal Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, was led by Jeffrey Zink and Fuyu Tamanoi, both members of the California NanoSystems Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, and Carlotta Glackin of City of Hope Cancer Center. “We were truly surprised by the dramatic effect of delivering Twist siRNA,&r...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Abstract Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R) control important biological activities as well as being involved in pathological processes. Due to their supportive nature in many human cancers they have long been considered attractive therapeutic targets. However, lessons learnt from early targeting trials highlight that a simple "active versus inactive" state model with classical kinase-only signaling is overly simplistic and does not describe reality. A vast amount of evidence exists disproving this model and hence provides a rational explanati...
Source: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Int Rev Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research
M árcio Debiasi, Carisi A. Polanczyk, Patrícia Ziegelmann, Carlos Barrios, Hongyuan Cao, James J. Dignam, Paul Goss, Brittany Bychkovsky, Dianne M. Finkelstein, Rodrigo S. Guindalini, Paulo Filho, Caroline Albuquerque, Tomás Reinert, Evandro de Azambuja, Olufunmilayo Olopade
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Hung-Ming Lam, Eva Corey
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Contributors : Feng Zhou ; Shuai Gao ; Dong Han ; Changmeng CaiSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensThe aberrant activation of the ERG oncogenic pathway due to TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions is the major driver of prostate cancer initiation and progression. We identified the alpha1 and beta1 subunits of soluble guanylyl cyclase (GUCY1A1, GUCY1B1) as major ERG-regulated genes in prostate cancer cells. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the major mediator of nitric oxide signaling in cells that, upon nitric oxide binding, catalyzes the synthesis of cGMP and subsequently activates PK...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Consolidating all Medicare drug payments under Part D sounds easy, but some cancer patients fear they'll take a hit
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
In this study, a comprehensive dielectric spectroscopy study is conducted for the first time to characterize the ultra-wideband dielectric properties of freshly excised normal and malignant skin tissues obtained from skin cancer patients having undergone Mohs micrographic surgeries at Hackensack University Medical Center. Measurements are conducted using a precision slim-form open-ended coaxial probe in conjunction with a millimeter-wave vector network analyzer over the frequency range of 0.5–50 GHz. A one-pole Cole–Cole model is fitted to the complex permittivity dataset of each sample. Statistically considera...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Drinkers in particular need to be more aware of mounting evidence of links between alcohol and cancer, and make judgements accordingly
Source: New Scientist - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: research
Pamela North was referred to hospital by her GP with suspected bladder cancer in February 2015. The grandmother from Ilford, Essex, was diagnosed a year later but died in 2016.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
In this study, we investigated the role of the PIM kinases with respect to T cell responses in transplantation and tumor immunity. We found that the PIM-2 isoform negatively regulated T cell responses to alloantigen, in contrast to the PIM-1 and PIM-3 isoforms, which acted as positive regulators. T cells deficient in PIM-2 demonstrated increased T cell differentiation toward Th1 subset, proliferation, and migration to target organs after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, resulting in dramatically accelerated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) severity. Restoration of PIM-2 expression markedly attenuated the pathogenici...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Looking to detect cancer early through a simple blood test, Grail Inc. raised a $300 million from several Chinese investors on top of $1.2 billion in two earlier rounds over the past two years. The Menlo Park company, which has been rumored to be planning a $500 million initial public offering in Hong Kong later this year, said the oversubscribed Series C round will help it develop and validate experimental products for early cancer detection. A year ago, it bought Chinese blood diagnos tics company…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
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