COVID-19. Biology, pathophysiology, and immunology: a pathologist view

Pathologica. 2023 Oct;115(5):248-256. doi: 10.32074/1591-951X-954.ABSTRACTEven if the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been declared over, several risks and clinical problems remain to be faced, including long-COVID sequelae and possible outbreaks of pathogenic variants. Intense research on COVID-19 has provided in these few years a striking amount of data covering different fields and disciplines, which can help to provide a knowledge shield against new potential infective spreads, and may also potentially be applied to other fields of medicine, including oncology and neurology. Nevertheless, areas of uncertainty still remain regarding the pathogenic mechanisms that subtend the multifaceted manifestations of the disease. To better clarify the pathogenesis of the disease, a systematic multidisciplinary evaluation of the many mechanisms involved in COVID-19 is mandatory, including clinical, physiological, radiological, immunological and pathological studies. In COVID-19 syndrome the pathological studies have been mainly performed on autopsy cases, and only a few studies are available on biopsies. Nevertheless, these studies have provided relevant information that can substantially contribute to decipher the complex scenario characterizing the different forms of COVID-19 and long-COVID-19. In this review the data provided by pathological investigations are recapitulated and discussed, in the light of different hypothesis and data provided by clinical, physiological and immunological dat...
Source: Pathologica - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research