Exploring the pathologist's role in understanding COVID-19: from pneumonia to long-COVID lung sequelae

Pathologica. 2023 Oct;115(5):275-283. doi: 10.32074/1591-951X-906.ABSTRACTThe crucial role of pathologists in enhancing our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-related disease, from initial pneumonia manifestations to persistent long COVID lung symptoms, is the focus of this review. Pathological explorations have offered unprecedented insights into the early stages of severe COVID-19, shedding light on the interplay between the virus and subsequent complications, thereby shaping clinical approaches. Growing interest is directed to residual lung abnormalities of COVID-19 survivors. Although various radiological studies reported long-lasting pulmonary changes (e.g., ground glass opacities, reticulations, and bronchiectasis), the true incidence of pulmonary fibrosis and corresponding pathological findings in these patients remains largely unknown. There are a few high-impact and knowledgeable works on late complications in COVID-19 survivors, several coming from explant or autopsy cases, and rare cases from in vivo sampling. The study of biopsy samples has further deepened our knowledge of the aftermath of COVID-19 on lung tissue, uncovering alterations at the cellular level and shifts in vascular and epithelial dynamics. Despite the substantial progress made, future research is needed to devise a uniform strategy for interpreting lung biopsies, with a focus on leveraging advanced tools such as molecular and digital pathology techniques, along with artificial intelligence.PMID:38054902 ...
Source: Pathologica - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research