Untangling Tau: Molecular Insights into Neuroinflammation, Pathophysiology, and Emerging Immunotherapies

Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2023 Nov 2;45(11):8816-8839. doi: 10.3390/cimb45110553.ABSTRACTNeuroinflammation, a core pathological feature observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), is rapidly gaining attention as a target in understanding the molecular underpinnings of these disorders. Glial cells, endothelial cells, peripheral immune cells, and astrocytes produce a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators that exacerbate the disease progression. Additionally, microglial cells play a complex role in AD, facilitating the clearance of pathological amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) plaques and aggregates of the tau protein. Tau proteins, traditionally associated with microtubule stabilization, have come under intense scrutiny for their perturbed roles in neurodegenerative conditions. In this narrative review, we focus on recent advances from molecular insights that have revealed aberrant tau post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and acetylation, serving as pathological hallmarks. These modifications also trigger the activation of CNS-resident immune cells, such as microglia and astrocytes substantially contributing to neuroinflammation. This intricate relationship between tau pathologies and neuroinflammation fosters a cascading impact on neural pathophysiology. Furthermore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning tau's influence on neuroinflammation presents a frontier for the development of innovative immunotherapies. Ne...
Source: Current Issues in Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research