Antithrombotic options for atrial fibrillation in 2012.

Antithrombotic options for atrial fibrillation in 2012. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2012 Sep;12(1):1-5 Authors: Rude J, Quevedo K, Rodriguez de Armas L, Mukherjee D Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia in clinical practice. An important component of the management of patients with AF involves prevention of thromboembolism and stroke. Coumarins, such as warfarin had been the only available oral antithrombotic agent for prevention of thromboembolism for many decades. Following intestinal absorption, coumarins inhibit multiple steps of the clotting cascade that leads to inhibition of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. In addition to delayed and variable inhibition of coagulation, coumarin therapy has a narrow therapeutic window for optimal balance of risk and benefit, which requires regular assessment of the international normalized ratio (INR) to monitor coagulation. A quest for safer, more effective therapies that do not need monitoring has led to the development of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. In this article, we review these newer antithrombotic agents and discuss role of these drugs in clinical practice. PMID: 22524172 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of reviewAtrial fibrillation is the commonest sustained arrhythmia in rheumatic heart disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss its epidemiology, natural course and management with special emphasis on recent developments in understanding and treatment of atrial fibrillation in rheumatic heart disease.Recent findingsUse of direct oral anticoagulants appears promising, especially in developing countries where regular coagulation monitoring is a challenge. Also, restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm in rheumatic atrial fibrillation appear feasible and ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with a prevalence and incidence of 23% and 3.1% respectively. The risk of thromboembolism is high in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy regardless of the CHADS2VASC score. This review includes five observational studies that focused on prevention of thromboembolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation. These papers evaluated and compared outcomes between patients on either warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants.
Source: Heart Rhythm - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Semin Thromb Hemost DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1714400Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequently identified arrhythmia during the course of sepsis. The aim of this narrative review is to assess the characteristics of patients with new-onset AF related to sepsis and the risk of stroke and death, to understand if there is a need for anticoagulation. We searched for studies on AF and sepsis on PubMed, the Cochrane database, and Web of Science, and 17 studies were included. The mean incidence of new-onset AF in patients with sepsis was 20.6% (14.7% in retrospective studies and 31.6% in prospective). Risk factors for new-onset AF includ...
Source: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
ConclusionAcross geriatric subgroups, apixaban was consistently associated with the most favourable benefit-risk profile and should therefore be preferred in geriatric patients with AF. However, research gaps on the impact of increased falling risk, frailty and baseline dementia were identified, requiring careful consideration while awaiting more results.
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion Our study highlights how DOACs are a safe and effective option for anticoagulation, even in frail elderly people; the introduction of these drugs is leading to an increased use of anticoagulation therapy in this population. Prospective trials will be needed to reinforce these results and to consider new variables in the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk scores underlying the prescription of DOACs.
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Tags: Research articles: Arrhythmias Source Type: research
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this case is the second report of a left atrial posterior wall thrombus in this setting. The patient's complex and specific set of risk factors likely led to this rare finding. Although left atrial posterior wall thrombus after ablation is rare, in patients with specific risks or a combination of factors that could lead to such a clot, visualizing the left atrium in these patients may be beneficial to minimize the risk of systemic embolization. PMID: 32612478 [PubMed]
Source: Ochsner Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Ochsner J Source Type: research
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in the general population. In western countries with aging populations, atrial fibrillation poses a significant health concern, as it is associated with a high risk of thromboembolism, stroke, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. Thrombi are generated in the left atrial appendage, and subsequent embolism into the cerebral circulation is a major cause of ischemic stroke. Therefore, patients have a lifetime risk of stroke, and those at high risk, defined as a CHA2DS2-VASc2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age>75 years, diabetes mel...
Source: Cardiology in Review - Category: Cardiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of reviewIn this review article, we aim to describe the pathophysiology of concomitant atrial fibrillation and both left and right heart failure, as well as pronounce the prognosis of having these two conditions simultaneously. This review also summarizes the current management of atrial fibrillation including stroke and thromboembolism prevention in the presence of systolic and diastolic heart failure.Recent findingsWhile rhythm control strategy is not superior to rate control strategy in atrial fibrillation patients without heart failure, catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation has shown to improve outc...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
AbstractAdult patients with simple congenital heart disease (sACHD) represent an expanding population vulnerable to atrial arrhythmias (AA). CHA2DS2-VASc score estimates thromboembolic risk in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients. We investigated the prognostic role of CHA2DS2-VASc score in a non-selected sACHD population regardless of cardiac rhythm. Between November 2009 and June 2018, 427 sACHD patients (377 in sinus rhythm, 50 in AA) were consecutively referred to our ACHD service. Cardiovascular hospitalization and/or all-cause death were considered as composite primary end-point. Patients were divided into group...
Source: Pediatric Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. It affects 1 in 4 adults aged>40 years,1 and is associated with a 5-fold increased risk of stroke.1 Hence, anticoagulants are universally recommended to prevent stroke and systemic embolism in patients with AF.1 The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are important alternatives to warfarin for prevention of arterial thromboembolism in patients with AF. Currently, the FDA has approved four NOACs for use in patients with AF: dabigatran is a thrombin inhibitor, while rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban are factor Xa inhibitors.
Source: The American Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
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