It’s Time: The Case for PrEP as an Active Comparator in HIV Biomedical Prevention Trials

Abstract In July 2012, based on evidence from two major trials, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the use of combined oral tenofovir/emtricitabine as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people at high risk of HIV acquisition. PrEP effectiveness is marred by poor adherence, however, even in trial populations, thus it is not a magic bullet for HIV prevention. It is, however, the most effective biomedical HIV prevention intervention available for people at high risk of HIV, particularly those who have receptive sex and lack the power to negotiate condom use. Accordingly, there are compelling reasons to compare future experimental HIV prevention interventions against PrEP. The interests both of trial participants and of science are served by using PrEP as comparator: Not only would HIV incidence be reduced, but also the question of whether new interventions were superior to best proven interventions, in a given setting, would be answered comprehensively.
Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: research

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Source: Polymer - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
In conclusion, we demonstrate a facile way to improve morphological and electrical properties of ZnO layer by simply adding CV/EV in sol–gel ZnO to fabricate high performance PSCs.
Source: Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 529Author(s): Collin J. Wilkinson, John C. MauroAbstractA recent article in this journal [D.L. Sidebottom, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 516 (2019) 63–66] proposes a “universal topological pattern” for the composition dependence of liquid fragility in terms of the number of coarse-grained topological constraints in the glass-forming network. This “universal topological pattern,” however, is reported without any physical derivation from Angell's definition of liquid fragility. Alternatively, temperature-dependent constrai...
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 529Author(s): T.V. Perevalov, V.A. Volodin, G.N. Kamaev, G.K. Krivyakin, V.A. Gritsenko, I.P. ProsvirinAbstractThe electronic structures of SiOx:H films synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon and glass substrates were studied. The film stoichiometric parameter x varied in the range from 0.57 to 2 depending on the oxygen supply to the reactor conditions. According to XPS, Raman scattering and high-resolution electron microscopy, a core-shell model of the a-SiOx:H structure was applied. According to this model, the...
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 529Author(s): A.S. Asyikin, M.K. Halimah, A.A. Latif, M.F. Faznny, S.N. NazrinAbstractGlasses with chemical composition {[(TeO₂)0.7 (B₂O₃)0.3]0.8 [SiO₂]0.2}1-x {Sm₂O₃ NPs}x where x = 0.01 to 0.05 molar fraction have been fabricated using conventional melt-quenching method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra reveal the presence of TeO3, SiO2 and BO3 structural units in the glass network. The existence of samarium oxide nanoparticles was recorded through high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) with part...
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 February 2020Source: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Volume 529Author(s): David SidebottomAbstractIn their Comment, Wilkinson and Mauro (WM) raise the issue that our coarse-graining interpretation of the fragility in network forming glasses lacks the first derivative quality inherent in their temperature-dependent constraint theory (TDCT). In response, we clarify this issue and acknowledge that both approaches are in conflict and each is struggling for validation. As something of a way forward, we challenge proponents of TDCT to resolve a puzzle in the fragility trends of simple binary alkali oxide glasses.
Source: Journal of Non Crystalline Solids - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 January 2020Source: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Volume 856Author(s): Nagaraj Radha, Kanakaraj Aruchamy, H.M. Manohara, M.R. Nidhi, Dibyendu Mondal, Sanna Kotrappanavar Nataraj, Debasis Ghosh
Source: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
This study provides a new way to explore the application of inexpensive co-catalysts on a large scale.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Alloys and Compounds - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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