The food additive titanium dioxide hinders intestinal production of TGF- β and IL-10 in mice, and long-term exposure in adults or from perinatal life blocks oral tolerance to ovalbumin

Food Chem Toxicol. 2023 Jul 27:113974. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2023.113974. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFood hypersensitivities are increasing in industrialized countries, and foodborne nanoparticles (NPs) are suspected as co-factors in their aetiology. Food-grade titanium dioxide (fg-TiO2), a food colouring agent, is composed of NPs with immunomodulatory properties. We investigated whether fg-TiO2 may compromise the establishment of oral tolerance (OT) to food proteins using a model of OT induction to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice, and whether a perinatal exposure could trigger this effect. In pregnant mice fed a TiO2-enriched diet, ICP-MS and TEM-EDX analyses showed passage of TiO2 NPs into the foetus. When their weaned offspring were fed the same diet, a breakdown in OT to OVA was observed at adulthood, characterized by a high anti-OVA IgG production compared to controls. However, adult mice directly exposed to fg-TiO2 did not induce OT to OVA either, ruling out a developmental origin for these effects. When these mice were orally challenged with OVA, intestinal inflammation demonstrated hypersensitivity to OVA. In OVA-naïve mice, fg-TiO2 exposure impaired intestinal TGF-β and IL-10 production, of key role in OT induction and maintenance. These findings showed that long-term exposure to TiO2 as food additive alters anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, and leads to OT failure regardless of the timing of TiO2 exposure throughout life.PMID:37516336 | DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2023.113974
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - Category: Food Science Authors: Source Type: research