Evaluation of the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity potential of synthetic diacetyl food flavoring in silico, in vivo, and in vitro

Food Chem Toxicol. 2023 Jul 1:113923. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2023.113923. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDiacetyl is a common ingredient that creates a buttery flavor in baked goods and other food products. The cytotoxic impact of diacetyl on a normal human liver cell line (THLE2) indicated an IC50 value of 41.29 mg/ml through MTT assay and a cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase relative to the control. Administration of diacetyl at two-time points (acute-chronic) led to a significant increase in DNA damage indicated by the increase in tail length, tail DNA%, and tail moment. The mRNA and protein expression levels of genes in the rats' livers were then measured using real-time PCR and western blotting. The results showed an activation of the apoptotic and necrosis mechanism, with an upregulation of p53, Caspase 3, and RIP1 and a downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA level. The ingestion of diacetyl disrupted the liver's oxidant/antioxidant balance, as evidenced by alterations in levels of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, MDA, NO, and peroxynitrite. Additionally, heightened levels of inflammatory cytokines were shown. Histopathological examinations revealed necrotic foci and congested portal areas in the rats' liver cells after treatment with diacetyl. Diacetyl may interact moderately with Caspase, RIP1, and p53 core domain through In-silico, possibly resulting in upregulated gene expression.PMID:37399938 | DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2023.113923
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - Category: Food Science Authors: Source Type: research