Differential expression of the calcium-sensing receptor in the ischemic and border zones after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats

Publication date: Available online 23 May 2015 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Jeong Sook Noh , Ha-Jin Pak , Yoo-Jin Shin , Tae-Ryong Riew , Joo-Hee Park , Young Wha Moon , Mun-Yong Lee G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been recently recognized as an important modulator of diverse cellular functions, beyond the regulation of systemic calcium homeostasis. To identify whether CaSR is involved in the pathophysiology of stroke, we studied the spatiotemporal regulation of CaSR protein expression in rats undergoing transient focal cerebral ischemia, which was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We observed very weak or negligible immunoreactivity for CaSR in the striatum of sham-operated rats, as well as in the contralateral striatum of ischemic rats after reperfusion. However, CaSR expression was induced in the ischemic and border zones of the lesion in ischemic rats. Six hours post-reperfusion there was an upregulation of CaSR in the ischemic zone, which seemed to decrease after seven days. This upregulation preferentially affected some neurons and cells associated with blood vessels, particularly endothelial cells and pericytes. In contrast, CaSR expression in the peri-infarct region was prominent three days after reperfusion, and with the exception of some neurons, it was mostly located in reactive astrocytes, up to day 14 after ischemia. On the other hand, activated microglia/macrophages in both the ischemic and border zones we...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Leptomeningeal anastomoses or pial collateral vessels play a critical role in cerebral blood flow (CBF) restoration following ischemic stroke. The magnitude of this adaptive response is postulated to be controlled by the endothelium, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain under investigation. Here we demonstrated that endothelial genetic deletion, using EphA4fl/fl/Tie2-Cre and EphA4fl/fl/VeCahderin-CreERT2 mice and vessel painting strategies, implicated EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase as a major suppressor of pial collateral remodeling, CBF, and functional recovery following permanent middle cerebral artery occ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Review of English-language articles published from PubMed (MEDLINE) and Google Scholar between January 1, 1985, and January 1, 2019.
Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Crescendo transient ischemic attacks should be treated by carotid endarterectomy within two days – but with increased perioperative stroke risk Source Type: research
Conclusions: We speculated that damages to the basal ganglia disrupted the cortico-subcortical circuits that facilitated the transhemispheric communications of language functions, resulting in decreased interhemispheric FC. Consequently, the intrahemispheric FC increased as a possible compensatory mechanism to restore the language functions. PMID: 31955634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
Authors: Parker WAE, Storey RF Abstract Aspirin and P2Y12 inhibitors remain commonly prescribed antiplatelet drugs in the treatment of atherothrombotic conditions. Despite established benefits of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in the setting of acute coronary syndromes, there remains residual ischemic risk in this group and the problem of bleeding complications is an ongoing issue. DAPT with aspirin and ticagrelor has now been studied in other patient groups such as those with concurrent diabetes and stable coronary artery disease, and those undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Recent tri...
Source: Platelets - Category: Hematology Tags: Platelets Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2020Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Volume 109, Issue 2Author(s): Elizabeth L. Norton, Xiaoting Wu, Linda Farhat, Karen M. Kim, Himanshu J. Patel, G. Michael Deeb, Bo YangBackgroundIt is controversial if extension of aortic dissection into arch branches should be an indication for replacement of the arch and its branches in acute type A aortic dissection.MethodsFrom 2008 to April 2018, 399 patients underwent open repair for an acute type A aortic dissection, and 190 patients had known innominate and/or left common carotid artery dissection without malperfusion syndrome, including no arch ...
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Acute ischemic stroke, especially minor stroke, and transient ischemic attack have high risks of recurrence and exacerbation into severe ischemic strokes. It remains challenging to perform risk stratification and screen high-risk groups for initiation of early treatment in these patients. Moreover, with the growing population of patients with chronic small vessel disease, the mechanisms and clinical implications require further investigation. Traditional tools such as the ABCD2 score (age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration of symptoms, diabetes) have only moderate predictive value in patients with transient ische...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractWhile a number of studies have reported an association between apelin-13 and ischemic stroke, few have verified its clinical effect. We investigated the prognostic value of serum apelin-13 levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We prospectively recruited 244 AIS patients within 24  h after stroke onset, and 167 healthy controls. We assessed the serum apelin-13 levels using ELISA, and the severity of AIS using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The primary outcomes included death or major disability (modified Rankin Scale score, 3–6) and major disabilit y (modified Ranki...
Source: Translational Stroke Research - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the role of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway on the protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis extract (CSE) against cerebral ischemia injury both in vivo and in vitro. In a murine middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, administration of CSE relieved neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis. CSE also reduced neurobehavioral scores and oxygen free radical (OFR), while improving the levels of ATP, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and mitochondrial complexes I-IV. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of Bax, cytochrome c (Cyt c) a...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our study determined a promising outcome with reasonable good recanalization and clinical recovery for endovascular intervention in tandem ischemic. In the subgroup of treatment, “extracranial stent first” had more complex disease with completed ICA occlusion which required longer procedure time may lead to worse outcome.
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Arunmozhimaran Elavarasi, Thekkumpurath M Haq, Thekkumpurath Thahira, Cheminikkara Bineesh, Laxmana B KancharlaAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2020 23(1):135-136
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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