Rumen microbial composition associated with the non ‐glucogenic to glucogenic short‐chain fatty acids ratio in Holstein cows
This study aimed to determine the physiological features and rumen microbial composition associated with the non-glucogenic-to-glucogenic short-chain fatty acids ratio (NGR). Holstein cows were housed in a free-stall barn with an automatic milking system and fed a partially mixed ration. Physiological and microbial analyses were performed on 66 datasets collected from 66 cows (50 –250 days in milk). NGR was positively correlated with ruminal pH, relative abundances of protozoa and fungi, methane conversion factor, methane intensity, plasma lipids, parity, and milk fat, and negatively correlated with total short-chain fatty acids. To highlight the differences in bacterial and archaeal compositions between NGRs, low-NGR cows (N = 22) were compared with medium-NGR (N = 22) and high-NGR (N = 22) cows. The low-NGR group was characterized by a lower abundance ofMethanobrevibacter and a higher abundance of operational taxonomic units belonging to the lactate-producing, such asIntestinibaculum,Kandleria, andDialister, and the succinate-producingPrevotella. Our findings indicate that NGR affects the methane conversion factor, methane intensity, and blood and milk compositions. Low NGR is associated with a higher abundance of lactate- and succinate-producing bacteria and lower abundances of protozoa, fungi, andMethanobrevibacter.