Epidemiology and clinical presentation of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in children under 5 years of age admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital, Mozambique, 2001–2019
AbstractStaphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is one of the most common bloodstream infections globally. Data on the burden and epidemiology of community-acquired SAB in low-income countries are scarce but needed to define preventive and management strategies. Blood samples were collected from children < 5 years of age with fever or severe disease admitted to the Manhiça District Hospital for bacterial isolation, includingS. aureus. Between 2001 and 2019, 7.6% (3,197/41,891) of children had bacteraemia, of which 12.3% corresponded to SAB. The overall incidence of SAB was 56.1 episodes/100,000 children-years at risk (CYAR), being highest among neonates (589.8 episodes/100,000 CYAR). SAB declined significantly between 2001 and 2019 (322.1 to 12.5 episodes/100,000 CYAR). In-hospital mortality by SAB was 9.3% (31/332), and significantly associated with infections by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains (14.7%, 11/75vs. 6.9%, 14/204 among non-MDR,p = 0.043) and methicillin-resistantS. aureus (33.3%, 5/15vs. 7.6%, 20/264 among methicillin-susceptibleS. aureus,p = 0.006). Despite the declining rates of SAB, this disease remains an important cause of death among children admitted to MDH, possibly in relation to the resistance to the first line of empirical treatment in use in our setting, suggesting an urgent need to review current policy recommendation s.