Regulation of viability, differentiation and death of human melanoma cells carrying neural stem cell biomarkers: a possibility for neural trans-differentiation

Abstract During embryonic development, melanoblasts, the precursors of melanocytes, emerge from a subpopulation of the neural crest stem cells and migrate to colonize skin. Melanomas arise during melanoblast differentiation into melanocytes and from young proliferating melanocytes through somatic mutagenesis and epigenetic regulations. In the present study, we used several human melanoma cell lines from the sequential phases of melanoma development (radial growth phase, vertical growth phase and metastatic phase) to compare: (i) the frequency and efficiency of the induction of cell death via apoptosis and necroptosis; (ii) the presence of neural and cancer stem cell biomarkers as well as death receptors, DR5 and FAS, in both adherent and spheroid cultures of melanoma cells; (iii) anti-apoptotic effects of the endogenous production of cytokines and (iv) the ability of melanoma cells to perform neural trans-differentiation. We demonstrated that programed necrosis or necroptosis, could be induced in two metastatic melanoma lines, FEMX and OM431, while the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis was prevalent in a vast majority of melanoma lines. All melanoma lines used in the current study expressed substantial levels of pluripotency markers, SOX2 and NANOG. There was a trend for increasing expression of Nestin, an early neuroprogenitor marker, during melanoma progression. Most of the melanoma lines, including WM35, FEMX and A375, can grow as a spheroid culture in serum-free...
Source: Apoptosis - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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Source: Biotechnology Progress - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Total anterior segment (103Pd) plaque brachytherapy resulted in local control, good visual acuity, eye and life preservation in the treatment of multifocal iris melanoma. PMID: 32306746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Eur J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
our B Abstract Methionine-dependency is a common feature of cancer cells, which cannot proliferate without constant inputs of exogenous methionine even in the presence of its precursor, homocysteine. The endogenous synthesis of methionine is catalyzed by methionine synthase, which transfers the methyl group of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) to homocysteine in the presence of vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cbl). Diverse mechanisms can produce it, including somatic mutations, aberrant DNA methylation (epimutations) and altered expression of genes. Around twenty somatic mutations have been reported as a cause of met...
Source: Biochimie - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research
, Kerkis I Abstract Melanoma is characterized by high heterogeneity and plasticity, most likely due to the presence of mutated melanocyte stem cells or immature progenitor cells in the skin that serves as precursors to melanoma. In the present study, for the first time, we identified rare cells in the murine melanoma B16F10, and human A2058 and SK-MEL-28 cell lines that express pluripotency markers, including Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and a marker of melanoma cancer cells (ALDH1/2). These cells are very small with round morphology and they grow onto melanoma cells, thereby demonstrating feeder layer dependence similar t...
Source: Experimental Cell Research - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Exp Cell Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Peptide-pulsed nanoparticle aAPC rapidly expanded polyfunctional antigen-specific CD8 T cells with high avidity, potent lytic function and a stem-memory phenotype from melanoma patients. PMID: 32241816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Abstract Melatonin is a physiological hormone produced by the pineal gland. In recent decades, enormous investigations showed that melatonin can prompt apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibit tumor metastasis and angiogenesis in variety of malignancies such as ovarian, melanoma, colon, and breast cancer; therefore, its possible therapeutic usage in cancer treatment was confirmed. CSCs, which has received much attention from researchers in past decades, are major challenges in the treatment of cancer. Because CSCs are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs and cause recurrence of cancer and also have the ability to be r...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Pathol Res Pract Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe predicted the regulatory factors involved in T cell exhaustion using single-cell transcriptome profiles of human TI lymphocytes. TOX promoted intra-tumoral CD8+ T cell exhaustion via upregulation of IC molecules. This suggested that TOX inhibition can potentially impede T cell exhaustion and improve ICI efficacy. Additionally,TOX expression in the TI T cells can be used for patient stratification during anti-tumor treatments, including anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
Source: Genome Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: When proliferating tumor cells expand to areas distant from vascular sites, poor diffusion of oxygen and nutrients occur, generating a restrictive hypoxic gradient in which susceptible tumor cells die. The heterogeneous population surviving hypoxia and metabolic starvation include de-differentiated cancer stem cells (CSC), capable of self-renewing tumor-initiating cells (TICs), or those that divide asymmetrically to produce non-tumor-initiating differentiated (NTI-D) cell progeny. Under such restrictive conditions, both populations slowly proliferate, entering quiescence or senescence, when ex...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
p19Arf sensitizes B16 melanoma cells to interferon-β delivered via mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2020;53(3):e8876 Authors: Da-Costa RC, Vieira IL, Hunger A, Tamura RE, Strauss BE Abstract The immune stimulatory and anti-neoplastic functions of type I interferon have long been applied for the treatment of melanoma. However, the systemic application of high levels of this recombinant protein is often met with toxicity. An approach that provides localized, yet transient, production of type I interferon may overcome this limitation. We propose that the use of mesenchymal stem ...
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, concerning in silico assessments' results in this study, the designed vaccine can potentially boost immune responses against PRAME, therefore may decrease BC development and metastasis. According to the mined PRAME co-expressed genes and their functional annotation, cell cycle regulation is the prime mechanism opted by this construct and its adjacent regulatory genes along boosting immune reactions. PMID: 32065960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Computational Biology and Chemistry - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Tags: Comput Biol Chem Source Type: research
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