Intramuscular adipogenesis in cattle: Effects of body fat distribution and macrophage infiltration
AbstractEctopic fat is defined by the deposition of adipose tissue within non-adipose tissue such as skeletal muscle. Japanese Black cattle (Wagyu) are characterized by the ability to accumulate high amounts of intramuscular adipose tissue. Obese conditions enhance the accumulation of ectopic fat. This review shows the effects of subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution on Wagyu intramuscular adipogenesis. Obese conditions also stimulate the macrophage infiltration into adipose tissues. Adipose tissue macrophages have reported to regulate adipose tissue growth and ectopic fat accumulation in humans and rodents. Wagyu is characterized by the higher capacity for intramuscular adipogenesis than Holsteins. This review discusses the depot-specific effects of macrophage infiltration among subcutaneous, visceral, and intramuscular adipose tissue on intramuscular adipogenesis in Wagyu and Holstein cattle. Recently, metabolome analysis has been used to identify obesity-related biomarkers by comparing the biological samples between lean and obese patients. This review introduces the metabolomic profiles of plasma and intramuscular adipose tissue between Wagyu and Holsteins.