Vital step in stem cell growth revealed

(Salk Institute) Salk scientists' finding could aid regenerative and cancer therapies.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Authors: Mousavi SM, Soroshni S, Hashemi SA, Babapoor A, Ghasemi Y, Mohammad Amani A Abstract At this article, graphene oxide Nano ribbons (GONRs) and its high potential for using in medical fields have been reviewed. Recently, Graphene Nano ribbons (GNRs) has been a field of interest in biological methods and disease treatment such as drug delivery, DNA applications, and photothermal cancer therapies. GNRs demonstrate more efficient properties rather than other graphene-based Nanomaterials due to their larger surface area. These novel properties made them into a remarkable substitute material for biological fields...
Source: Drug Metabolism Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Metab Rev Source Type: research
This study showed that potential vicious cycles underlying ARDs are quite diverse and unique, triggered by diverse and unique factors that do not usually progress with age, thus casting doubts on the possibility of discovering the single molecular cause of aging and developing the single anti-aging pill. Rather, each disease appears to require an individual approach. However, it still cannot be excluded that some or all of these cycles are triggered by fundamental processes of aging, such as chronic inflammation or accumulation of senescent cells. Nevertheless, experimental data showing clear cause and effect relationships...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
It seems reasonable to think that sabotaging the lengthening of telomeres might prove to be the basis for a universal cancer therapy, capable of shutting down all cancers. Unfettered telomere lengthening is required by all cancers in order to permit rampant replication and growth. Without that capability, the cancer will wither. Telomere length is a part of the mechanism limiting cell replication; cells lose a little of that length with each cell division, and short telomeres force senescence or self-destruction via programmed cell death. In normal tissues only stem cells use telomerase in order to maintain lengthy telomer...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Purpose of review Childhood blastomas, unlike adult cancers, originate from developing organs in which molecular and cellular features exhibit differentiation arrest and embryonic characteristics. Conventional cancer therapies, which rely on the generalized cytotoxic effect on rapidly dividing cells, may damage delicate organs in young children, leading to multiple late effects. Deep understanding of the biology of embryonal cancers is crucial in reshaping the cancer treatment paradigm for children. Recent findings p53 plays a major physiological role in embryonic development, by controlling cell proliferation, differ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research
For years, cancer treatment was dominated by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation. New insights into genetic characteristics of leukemic cells have initiated the development of the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. This type of adoptive cell immunotherapy has been a breakthrough in the treatment of aggressive B-cell lymphoma and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In August 2018, the European Commission has approved the first CAR T-cell products – tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah®, Novartis) and axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta®, Gilead) – for hematological n...
Source: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
AbstractIt has been well established that radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is manifested through loss of intestinal crypt stem cells and disruption of the mucosal layers, resulting in diarrhoea, weight loss, electrolyte imbalance, infection and mortality. Podophyllotoxin and rutin in combination (G-003M) has been reported to regulate endogenous cellular antioxidant defense systems and inflammatory response. However, the mechanism by which G-003M ameliorates radiation-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) injury remains unclear. Here, we hypothesize the radioprotective potential of G-003M would amplify the intestinal ...
Source: Apoptosis - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Many efforts have focused on the cancer stem cell (CSC) targeting nano delivery system, however, the anticancer therapy efficacy is relative low due to the highly drug-resistance and drug efflux. Nucleus-targeted drug delivery is a promising strategy for reverse the drug resistance and drug efflux of CSCs, but in vivo nucleus-targeted drug delivery has been challenging. Herein, we designed a mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN)-based nucleus-targeted system, which could directly target the CSCs and further enter the nucleus by the surface modification of anti-CD133 and thermal-triggered exposure of TAT pe...
Source: Biomaterials - Category: Materials Science Authors: Tags: Biomaterials Source Type: research
to AP Abstract Cancer stem cells show epigenetic plasticity and intrinsic resistance to anti-cancer therapy, rendering capable of initiating cancer relapse and progression. Transcription factor OCT-4 regulates various pathways in stem cells, but its expression can be regulated by pseudogenes. This work evaluated how OCT4-PG1 pseudogene can affect OCT-4 expression and mechanisms related to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in FEPS cells. Considering that OCT-4 protein is a transcription factor that regulates expression of ABC transporters, level of gene expression, activity of ABC proteins and cell sensitivi...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research
In this study, we used murine induced pluripotent stem cells that expressed specific stem cell genes such as Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, and two human cancer cell lines with similar stem cell gene expression. Deferasirox, an orally available iron chelator, suppressed expression of stemness markers and spherogenesis of cells with high stemness status in vitro. Combination therapy had a marked antitumor effect compared with deferasirox or cisplatin alone. Iron metabolism appears important for maintenance of stemness in CSCs. An iron chelator combined with chemotherapy may be a novel approach via suppressing stemnes...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion: We intended to briefly summarize the current studies related to targeting the CSC antigens by cancer immunotherapy based on their properties. Moreover, we highlight that CSC antigens possess targeting activity in the treatment of cancer patients. PMID: 30714514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Mol Med Source Type: research
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