Toxoplasma's ways of manipulating the host transcriptome via secreted effectors.

Toxoplasma's ways of manipulating the host transcriptome via secreted effectors. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2015 Apr 23;26:24-31 Authors: Hakimi MA, Bougdour A Abstract The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii strikes a subtle balance with the host immune system that not only prevents host death but also promotes parasite persistence. Although being enclosed within a parasitophorous vacuole, the parasite actively interfaces with host cell signaling pathways, thereby directing host cell responses. To this end, T. gondii delivers effector proteins into the host cell that co-opt host transcription factors and eventually modulate gene expression. Aside from the secretory Rhoptry organelles initially described as the main source of such effectors, Dense Granules are now recognized as critical in delivering products that remain confined at the vacuolar space or traffic beyond the vacuole membrane to the host cell nucleus and contribute to rewire host gene expression. This review highlights the latest breakthroughs in T. gondii effector discovery and their modus operandi during infection. PMID: 25912924 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Opinion in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Microbiol Source Type: research

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(Clemson University) In the quest to develop more effective treatments for parasitic diseases, scientists look for weaknesses in the organisms' molecular machinery. A team of College of Science researchers at Clemson recently contributed to that understanding by discovering the function of a specific protein in the three related parasites that cause African sleeping sickness, Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis -- diseases that are sometimes fatal and afflict millions worldwide.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
After watching the movie I realized the parallels of being a pharmacist to the movie Parasite. At the beginning I got accepted to Pharmacy and I thought I would escape the slums and be among the rich. However this was just a lie. After many years, I realized the student loans and hard retail environment has not really done anything special for me. I am stuck making huge student loan payments and working away my life with little to no enjoyment at high stress levels. The final scene where... What Parasite made me realize
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Ikuo Igarashi Cinnamomum verum is a commonly used herbal plant that has several documented properties against various diseases. The existing study evaluated the inhibitory effect of acetonic extract of C. verum (AECV) and ethyl acetate extract of C. verum (EAECV) against piroplasm parasites in vitro and in vivo. The drug-exposure viability assay was tested on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Qualitative phytochemical estimation revealed that AECV and EAECV containing multiple bioactive constituents namely alkaloids, tannins, saponins, te...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, taller body height at the entry to adulthood, supposed to be a marker of early-life environment, is associated with lower risk of dementia diagnosis later in life. The association persisted when adjusted for educational level and intelligence test scores in young adulthood, suggesting that height is not just acting as an indicator of cognitive reserve. A Comparison of Biological Age Measurement Approaches https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/02/a-comparison-of-biological-age-measurement-approaches/ Researchers here assess the performance of a range of approaches to measuring biological...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 22 February 2020Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Min-Ju Kim, Su-Hwa Lee, Hae-Ji Kang, Ki-Back Chu, Hyunwoo Park, Hui Jin, Eun-Kyung Moon, Sung Soo Kim, Fu-Shi QuanAbstractToxoplasmosis is an intracellular parasitic disease caused by the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii, which affects about half of the world's population. In spite of the strenuous endeavors, a T. gondii vaccine for clinical use remains unreported to date. In the present study, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) containing T. gondii apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and assessed its efficacy in a murine model. VLPs w...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Authors: Lambraño J, Curtidor H, Avendaño C, Díaz-Arévalo D, Roa L, Vanegas M, Patarroyo ME, Patarroyo MA Abstract Malaria continues being a high-impact disease regarding public health worldwide; the WHO report for malaria in 2018 estimated that ~219 million cases occurred in 2017, mostly caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The disease cost the lives of more than 400,000 people, mainly in Africa. In spite of great efforts aimed at developing better prevention (i.e., a highly effective vaccine), diagnosis, and treatment methods for malaria, no efficient solution to this disease ...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
This study describes for the first time a case of parasitic infestation by Amyloodinium in Brazilian sardines Sardinella brasiliensis obtained from natural spawning in captivity. The sardines kept in nurseries were naturally parasitized by the amylodiniosis causative agente the dynoflagellate A. ocellatum with high mortalities above 50%. Fish presented clinical signs characteristic of amyloodiniosis which included easily perceived behavioral changes such as loss of appetite, scraping of the body against objects, walls and bottom, nursery pipes, agglomerations near the aerators and water inlets, presented with accelerated o...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
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Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
This study aimed to detect the Leishmania spp. in bats. 146 bats, representing 16 different species belonging to the Molossidae, Vespertilionidae, and Phyllostomidae families, were received and processed for collection of tissues. Skin samples were collected from 100% of the bats, and liver samples were collected from 87% (n=127). After evaluating the quality of the DNA extracted by means of PCR directed to the IRBP gene, the samples considered suitable for the Leishmania detection test were submitted for PCR directed to Leishmania kDNA, and to confirm positivity, were tested to the SSUrRNA gene-directed Nested-PCR. The Le...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 February 2020Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Marianna Marangi, Piero Carlino, Chiara Profico, Vincenzo Olivieri, Giovanni Totaro, Giovanni Furii, Giacomo Marzano, Roberto Amerigo PapiniAbstractThe prevalence of endoparasite infections in 83 free-living specimens of Caretta caretta, classified as vulnerable species, from the Adriatic Sea and Northern Ionian Sea was investigated by coprological examination. Thirty-seven (44.6%) turtles were found to be infected with helminths. The helminth infections found were: Rhytidodes gelatinosus and ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
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