Drug resistance in Giardia duodenalis.

Drug resistance in Giardia duodenalis. Biotechnol Adv. 2015 Apr 25; Authors: Ansell BR, McConville MJ, Ma'ayeh SY, Dagley MJ, Gasser RB, Svärd SG, Jex AR Abstract Giardia duodenalis is a microaerophilic parasite of the human gastrointestinal tract and a major contributor to diarrheal and post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disease world-wide. Treatment of G. duodenalis infection currently relies on a small number of drug classes. Nitroheterocyclics, in particular metronidazole, have represented the front line treatment for the last 40 years. Nitroheterocyclic-resistant G. duodenalis have been isolated from patients and created in vitro, prompting considerable research into the biomolecular mechanisms of resistance. This class of compounds are redox-active and are believed to cause damage to protein and DNA after being activated by oxidoreductase enzymes in metabolically active cells. In this review, we explore the molecular phenotypes of nitroheterocyclic-resistant G. duodenalis described to date in the context of the protist's unusual glycolytic and antioxidant systems. We propose that resistance mechanisms are likely to extend well beyond currently described resistance-associated enzymes (i.e., pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases and nitroreductases), to include NAD(P)H- and flavin-generating pathways, and possibly redox-sensitive epigenetic regulation. Mechanisms that allow G. duodenalis to tolerate oxidative stress may lead to resistance ag...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research

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Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
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Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Iran J Parasitol Source Type: research
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Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research
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