Treatment of Pain in Fish

This chapter provides an overview of our current understanding of clinical analgesic use in fish. Recently, the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of several analgesic drugs for use in fish have been investigated, and the most important data indicates that μ-opioid agonist drugs (e.g, morphine) are consistently effective as analgesics across fish species. In addition, bath application of some analgesic drugs may be useful, which affords multiple methods for delivering analgesics to fish. Although few published studies of non-steroidal anti-inflammato ry drugs administered to fish show promise, we have much to learn about the analgesic efficacy of most drugs in this class.
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Source Type: research