'Humanized' mice will lead to better testing of cancer immunotherapies

(University of Colorado Denver) New model reported in Oncogene, XactMice, uses human blood stem cells to grow a 'humanized' mouse immune system prior to tumor transplantation, allowing anti-cancer therapies to be tested in a much more human-like environment.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Abstract Defining mechanisms that maintain tissue stem cells during homeostasis, stress, and aging is important for improving tissue regeneration and repair and enhancing cancer therapies. Here, we show that Id1 is induced in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by cytokines that promote HSC proliferation and differentiation, suggesting that it functions in stress hematopoiesis. Genetic ablation of Id1 increases HSC self-renewal in serial bone marrow transplantation (BMT) assays, correlating with decreases in HSC proliferation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Id1-/- HSCs have a q...
Source: Cell Stem Cell - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Cell Stem Cell Source Type: research
Authors: Abstract The diagnosis of cancer in females younger than 20 years is rare, with the incidence of 17 cases per 100,000 individuals per year in the United States. Although advancements in cancer therapy have dramatically improved childhood cancer survival, gynecologists should be aware of the increased risk of adverse reproductive health effects from each type of therapy. Cancer and its treatment may have immediate or delayed adverse effects on reproductive health. Gynecologists may be consulted for the following issues: pubertal concerns; menstrual irregularities; heavy menstrual bleeding and anemia; sexu...
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
Authors: Abstract The diagnosis of cancer in females younger than 20 years is rare, with the incidence of 17 cases per 100,000 individuals per year in the United States. Although advancements in cancer therapy have dramatically improved childhood cancer survival, gynecologists should be aware of the increased risk of adverse reproductive health effects from each type of therapy. Cancer and its treatment may have immediate or delayed adverse effects on reproductive health. Gynecologists may be consulted for the following issues: pubertal concerns; menstrual irregularities; heavy menstrual bleeding and anemia; sexu...
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
ConclusionNeurocognitive deficits (MCI and dementia) are more common in older adults with cancer. Factors associated with neurocognitive deficits include high comorbidity, stroke, warfarin use and metastatic cancer. Identification and management of these conditions is of great relevance in the course of cancer therapy.
Source: Journal of Geriatric Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigate mitochondrial energetics and mtDNA methylation in senescent cells, and evaluate the potential of humanin and MOTS-c as novel senolytics or SASP modulators that can alleviate symptoms of frailty and extend health span by targeting mitochondrial bioenergetics. Exercise versus the Hallmarks of Aging https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/06/exercise-versus-the-hallmarks-of-aging/ The paper I'll point out today walks through the ways in which exercise is known to beneficially affect the Hallmarks of Aging. The Hallmarks are a list of the significant causes of aging that I dis...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This study indicates that frailty and other age-related diseases could be prevented and significantly reduced in older adults. Getting our heart risk factors under control could lead to much healthier old ages. Unfortunately, the current obesity epidemic is moving the older population in the wrong direction, however our study underlines how even small reductions in risk are worthwhile." The study analysed data from more than 421,000 people aged 60-69 in both GP medical records and in the UK Biobank research study. Participants were followed up over ten years. The researchers analysed six factors that could impa...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells are involved in innate defenses against viruses and tumors. Their function is finely tuned by activating and inhibitory receptors. Among the latter, killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and CD94/NKG2A recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I molecules, allowing NK cells to discriminate between normal and aberrant cells, as well as to recognize allogeneic cells, because of their ability to sense HLA polymorphisms. This latter phenomenon plays a key role in HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) for high-risk acute leukemia patients transplan...
Source: Trends in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Trends Immunol Source Type: research
Scientists at the Vaccine and Immunotherapy Center (VIC) at Massachusetts General Hospital have uncovered a novel, two-agent immunotherapy combination that worked surprisingly well in animal models with malignant mesothelioma. The discovery has sparked new optimism for immunotherapy, which has struggled to provide consistently positive results with aggressive cancers such as mesothelioma. “This is the beginning of a new story of hope, a new combination of immunotherapy,” Dr. Mark Poznansky, director of the VIC and associate professor at Harvard Medical School, told Asbestos.com. “It worked quite well in a...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
Conclusion Neurocognitive deficits (MCI and dementia) are more common in older adults with cancer. Factors associated with neurocognitive deficits include high comorbidity, stroke, warfarin use and metastatic cancer. Identification and management of these conditions is of great relevance in the course of cancer therapy.
Source: Journal of Geriatric Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Liang Y, Wang H, Niu M, Zhu X, Cai J, Wang X Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aim of our longitudinal study was to explore changes in HRQOL over a 6-month period and to identify factors associated with the HRQOL of HSCT recipients. METHOD: Our study comprised 191 HSCT patients; their data were collected before transplantation and at 30, 90, and 180 days posttransplantation. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT) questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL.We also evaluated the patients' demographic characteristics and clinical histories to determine the relative contributions ...
Source: Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Source Type: research
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