Olfactory ensheathing cell-neurite alignment enhances neurite outgrowth in scar-like cultures.

Olfactory ensheathing cell-neurite alignment enhances neurite outgrowth in scar-like cultures. Exp Neurol. 2015 Apr 8; Authors: Khankan RR, Wanner IB, Phelps PE Abstract The regenerative capacity of the adult CNS neurons after injury is strongly inhibited by the spinal cord lesion site environment that is composed primarily of the reactive astroglial scar and invading meningeal fibroblasts. Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation facilitates neuronal survival and functional recovery after a complete spinal cord transection, yet the mechanisms by which this recovery occurs remain unclear. We used a unique multicellular scar-like culture model to test if OECs promote neurite outgrowth in growth inhibitory areas. Astrocytes were mechanically injured and challenged by meningeal fibroblasts to produce key inhibitory elements of a spinal cord lesion. Neurite outgrowth of postnatal cerebral cortical neurons was assessed on three substrates: quiescent astrocyte control cultures, reactive astrocyte scar-like cultures, and scar-like cultures with OECs. Initial results showed that OECs enhanced total neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons in a scar-like environment by 60%. We then asked if the neurite growth-promoting properties of OECs depended on direct alignment between neuronal and OEC processes. Neurites that aligned with OECs were nearly three times longer when they grew on inhibitory meningeal fibroblast areas and twice as long on reactive astrocyte ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

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Injuries to the central nervous system (CNS) are inefficiently repaired. Resident neural stem cells manifest a limited contribution to cell replacement. We have uncovered a latent potential in neural stem cells to replace large numbers of lost oligodendrocytes in the injured mouse spinal cord. Integrating multimodal single-cell analysis, we found that neural stem cells are in a permissive chromatin state that enables the unfolding of a normally latent gene expression program for oligodendrogenesis after injury. Ectopic expression of the transcription factor OLIG2 unveiled abundant stem cell–derived oligodendrogenesis...
Source: ScienceNOW - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Development, Neuroscience, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
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Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Molecular Brain - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
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Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
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